Wednesday, February 4, 2009

summary of chapter 1 (2nd classes smmary)



The way to think about a microcomputer is to realize that is 1 part of an information system. There are 5 parts of an information system:

1. People are an essential part of the system. The purpose of information system is to make
people, or end users more productive

2. Procedures are rules or guidelines to follow when using software, hardware, and data. they
are typically documented in manuals written by computer professionals.

3. Software (program) provide step-by-step instructions to control the computer to convert
data into information.

4. Hardware consist of the physical equipment. It is controlled by software and processes data
to create information.

5. Data consists of unprocessed facts including text, numbers, images, sound. Information is
data that has been processed by the computer .

Connectivity is an additional part to todays information systems. It allows computer to connect n share information. To be computer competent, end users need to understand information technology (IT).


People are the most important part of an information system. People are touched hundreds of times daily by computers. This book contains several features to demostate how people just like u use computers. these features include the following:

1. MAKING IT WORK FOR YOU presents several interesting and practical applications. Topics include creating personal Web sites, using digital photography and searching for job opportunities.

2. TIPS offer a variety of suggestion on such practical matters as how to improve slow computer
perfomance and how to protect your privacy while on the web.

3. CAREERS IN IT presents job descriptions, employment demands, educational requirements,
salary ranges, and advancement oppurtunities.

4. COMPUTING ESSENTIALS WEB SITES integrates the textbook with information on the web including videos, animations, career information, tips, crosswords, test review materials, and much more.


SOFTWARE or PROGRAMS consists of systems and application software.


Systems software enables application software to interact with computer hardware. It consists of a variety of programs:
-> OPERATING SYSTEMS coordinate resources, provide an interface for users and computer
hardware, and run applications. WindowXP, Window Vista and Mac OS X are operating
-> UTILITIES perform specific tasks to manage computer resources.
-> DEVICE DRIVERS are specialized programs to allow input and output devices to comunicate
with the rest of the computer system.


Application software includes basic and specialized applications.
-> BASIC APPLICATION are widely used in nearly all careers areas. Programs include
browsers, word processer, spreadsheets, database management systems, and presentation
-> SPECIALIZED APPLICATIONS focus on specific disciplines and occupation. These programs
include graphics, audio, video, multimedia, Web authoring, and artificial intelligence programs.


Hardware is the physical equipment in an information system.


Supercomputers, mainframe , minicomputer (midrange), and microcomputer are four types of computers. Microcomputers can be desktop, notebook, tabletPC, or handheld (palm). PDAs are the most widely used handheld computers.


There are 4 basic categoris of hardware device.
-> SYSTEM UNIT contains the electronic circuitry including the microprocessor and memory
(primary storage , random access memory [RAM], temporary storage)
-> INPUT/OUTPUT DEViCES are translators between humans and computers. Input devices
include the keyboard and mouse. Output devices include monitors and printers.
-> SECONDARY storage holds data and programs. Typical media include floppy disks, hard disk
and optical disks (CD, DVD, and hi def)
-> COMMUNICATION DEVICES connect the system unit to other computers and the internet. A modem modifies signals for processing and communication.

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